The accuracy of 2D ultrasound sex determination that is prenatal


Expectant mothers have already been interested in the intercourse of the unborn youngster. The advent of ultrasound, its application into medication, in addition to revolutionary alterations in its quality and function has resulted in the capacity to designate an intercourse to those unborn kiddies, thus allaying the anxiety of the females however with consequent emergent ethical, moral, psycho-social, and issues that are medico-legal. The goals had been to look for the precision of sonographic prenatal intercourse determination, perform binary classification test, additionally the effect it’s, including mis-diagnosis.

Materials and techniques:

A potential prenatal sonographic intercourse determination research on 205 consecutive consenting expectant mothers aged 20-40 years in an exclusive medical center in Benin between August 2010 and October 2011. Questionnaires were administered to these women prior to and after the scan therefore the ladies were told the intercourse regarding the fetuses and their emotions in the determined intercourse recorded. The intercourse at delivery had been verified and set alongside the scan determined gender by their situation telephone and note. Appropriate talks throughout the scan and in the future had been recorded from the questionnaires. The analytical package utilized was SPSS variation 17 and binary category tests had been done.

The sensitiveness (98.2%) and binary category elements values of prenatal intercourse determination had been high with all the sensitiveness of detecting a lady more than compared to men. Two men had been misdiagnosed as females. The majority of the ladies had been pleased even though the intercourse differed from that which they desired.


Prenatal sonographic intercourse determination possesses high sensitiveness index. Consequently we advocate its usage just before more invasive intercourse tests.


Ultrasound can be used generally in most components of the globe for prenatal intercourse dedication. Indication for prenatal sex determination could be nonmedical or medical. The indication that is medical its usage use in families vulnerable to x-linked problems, testicular feminization problem, pseudo-hermaphroditism, vaginal anomalies, ambiguous genitalia, and dedication of zygosity in numerous maternity. 1 – 5 In families predisposed to x-linked problems it results in the lowering of invasive procedures as sonographic prenatal determined females will never require further invasive screening that is genetic. The nonmedical reasons given by ladies for sonographic intercourse determination consist of preparturition shopping, fascination, husband/relatives’ demand, also to verify suspicion. 4

First trimester sonographic prenatal sex determination can be achieved from 11 months gestation with the direction regarding the genital tubercle as well as the “sagittal indication.” The downward way for the tubercle is known as a female even though the upward way a male. 1 ,2 In sagittal indication, study of the vaginal area into the midline sagittal air plane shows a caudal notch in females and a cranial notch in men. 6 ,7 Ultrasound scan carried out in the 2nd and trimester that is third focus on visualization regarding the ru brides structure associated with genitals or pelvic framework in determining the fetal intercourse. Within the very early magazines on sonographic gender that is prenatal male sex ended up being identified because of the existence associated with the penis and scrotum while females had been by the lack of both scrotum and penis. 8 But with improved contemporary resolution that is ultrasound visualization regarding the vulva, clitoris, and labia is considered a lady fetus whereas demonstration of this scrotum, penis, descended testicles, and penile midline raphe is assigned to males. Visualization for the internal pelvic structures for the fetus including the uterus and ovaries also assists in assigning appropriate intercourse to the fetus.

Regrettably very first trimester ultrasound sex determination has significant false negative price. 2 ,9 tests done into the 2nd trimester have actually better sensitiveness values. 9 The sensitiveness of sonographic determined intercourse is based on the operator, device, and habitus. Enhancement within the sensitiveness value increases with high experience and proficiency along with top-notch device. Improperly determined intercourse may have some emotional results on your family. 2 ergo an effort must certanly be designed to put a precise intercourse kind regarding the fetus. Therefore we undertook this research to determine the prenatal accuracy that is sonographic sensitiveness pattern within our environment.


This will be a potential study conducted at a personal medical center in Benin from August 2010 to Oct 2011. Approval when it comes to research ended up being tried and issued through the radiology department additionally the administration (which will act as the ethical board) regarding the personal organization in which the research had been carried out. Within the research 205 consecutive consenting women that are pregnant with pregnancies when you look at the second or 3rd trimester which were called for obstetric ultrasound had the process explained for them and questionnaires administered after signing the informed permission part. Sonographic sex that is prenatal ended up being carried out within these consenting females and also the determined intercourse communicated for them. They certainly were then expected the way they felt in regards to the determined intercourse and their emotions recorded. Information such as phone figures, gestational age at scan time, calculated date of distribution, instance note quantity, as well as other appropriate data had been entered in to the questionnaires. Their instance notes were retrieved about 3 months following the expected date of distribution as well as the intercourse of this child at delivery joined within their questionnaires. The clients had been additionally contacted by phone additionally the intercourse at delivery verified with relevant responses joined to the questionnaires. The sex at delivery ended up being compared to the prenatal sonographic determined intercourse.

The ultrasound device utilized ended up being Fukuda Denshi FF Sonic, UF-4100, Tokyo, 2007. The scan ended up being done by one of many scientists. Recognition associated with vulva, clitoris, and labia had been utilized to designate feminine intercourse to the fetus Figure 1 . For male fetuses visualization for the scrotum, testicles, and penile shaft had been used Figure 2 . The women were asked how they felt after knowing the fetal sex after the scan. Their reactions were then entered to the questionnaires. Appropriate communications that are oral additionally recorded into the questionnaires as other findings.

Female genitalia, encircled

Male fetal genitalia that are externalcircled)

The info had been analyzed SPSS that is using version. Descriptive analysis had been done in the patients’ biodata and gestation of this pregnancies. Binary category test such as for example sensitiveness, specificity, good value that is predictive negative predictive value, and precision had been done for either fetal intercourse and the outcomes tabulated. a chi-square test was additionally finished with significant value set at 0.05.

2 hundred and five women that are pregnant in this research utilizing the youngest aged two decades even though the earliest 40 years. The typical chronilogical age of the individuals ended up being 29.5 years; median 29 years; and mode 28 years. The time that is mean that the scans had been carried out is at 29.2 months gestation; median, 30 days gestation; mode, 35 months gestation. The earliest scan is at 17 days of gestation whilst the latest is at 40 months aided by the range spanning 23 months Figure 3 .

Histogram showing the frequencies and ages that are gestational which obstetric scans had been done

Most of the females had been accurately detected sonographically as females, but 2 men had been mistakenly reported as females dining Table 1 . Both of these men had been scanned at 33 and 36 months of gestation. The positive predictive value for ultrasound male intercourse detection is 100% Table 2 . It hence implies that if on ultrasound a male intercourse is detected, then your likelihood of being male is 100%. Having said that then the probability is 97.9% that it may turn out to be a female at birth if sonographically a female sex is detected. Also, the sensitiveness, specificity, and precision for either intercourse are high Table 2 .

השארת תגובה